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The bullet movement in the obstacle
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  We can see here that often the head of the gun shell turns up and right (with right rifling grooves), which is actually causing gun shell (bullet) to drift from its original direction. In case of the right twist turn, bullet will drift to the right and vice versa. Japan traditionally uses left bullet spin.

  Here is the question, though. Are those gruesome wounds, that have to be dealt with by forensic medicine experts in the wound tract, the result of the trajectory peculiarities of the bullet head, its turn (multiple), but not consequent to hydroimpact or “pulsing bubble?” How do we calculate energy consumption, etc?

  Today, many gun engineers and ammo producers (in the USA and other countries) produce expansive bullets for pistols. We can expect the same in our country. In my point of view, this is the loss of the moral values, absence of culture and education of the firearms producers. The legislators are also not aware of obvious things. The abovementioned facts concern final collapse of the concept of the limited casualty shooting based on the principle of reasonable sufficiency that has been carefully followed by major gun engineers and producers for the last hundred years.
RSE = 0.178 x G x V x F x S,
  Perhaps, Fedorov compared different shells and bullets, fired from revolvers and other handguns that today can be described as having following characteristics of “muzzle energy:” 7.62 mm. Nagant – 294 Joule, 7.62 mm. Tokarev TT – 502  Joule, 9 mm. Makarov PM – 304 Joule, 9 mm. Luger/Parabellum – 432 Joule. After making sure that all of them are capable of killing (stopping), Fedorov deduced that 250 Joule is enough.
  In year 1935, American weapon expert Julian Sommerville Hatcher (26.06.1888 – 4.12.1963) suggested a formula to calculate relative stopping effect (RSE) of bullets, that is used up to this time, in times of Pentium 4 processors and finite element method.
  The variants of the contemporary kinetic energy consumption calculations take into consideration bullet head form, bullet weight, speed, but what is absolutely ignored is that the bullet has maximum kinetic energy loss when it moves sideward, during the turn. When I.V. Fedorov was making his calculations, how did he measure bullet speed? It is obvious that he was doing this during Russian-Japanese war of 1905. How did he get this number 250 Joule? How did other experts convene their calculations?
- on the left is the bullet hole;
- in center is the “pulsing bubble;”
- on the right is the bullet exit hole.

  We need to rethink the notion of the “pulsing bubble.” Who does the pulsing and with what? I agree that hydroimpact is significant, but is it possible that the form, energy consumption for the cavity formation, first of all, by the fact that the bullet make a turn and the bullet exit hole is made not by the head part of the bullet, but with the bottom part (in case of the 360 degree turn – the front part). Due to the turn, there is a change in the bullet trajectory and uncalculated, high-energy consumption in human body. This is especially vivid in case of the bullets with poor balance, like 5.45 mm. bullets.
Image 1. Picture of a wound trace.
   The legislation is definitely making a mistake when allows to store and use hunting weapons for self-defense, allows security agencies to use them.
The hunting ammo, where bullets change their shape in human body, are sold everywhere in stores. Combat ammo is prohibited!
I would like to repeat it once again, that combat firearms use the philosophy of limited casualty shooting based on the principle of reasonable sufficiency. Hunting firearms aim to cause maximum damage to animal body. Isn’t the use of it as a weapon for self-defense an excessive force use?

  There is a need to rethink several provisions of the ballistics of the wound. The source of all misunderstandings is the famous among experts textbook “Ballistics of Wound,” that is highly confidential. This book describes damages that are caused to human body by different kinds of bullets in different conditions. The calculations are provided. The book contains descriptions of the experiments on corpse material. Wound track is described as follows:
    A bullet moves at high speed and produces not only a hole in the body, but creates a hydroimpact to the sides off the wound tract. Vessels and organs’ cells at considerable distance rupture, according to several researches, up to 20 cm in diameter. The wound is always infected and has a big number of extraneous particles; even if the bullet retains its solidity and form, bone particles cause additional damages.
The differences between hunting and combat (army) firearms.

- the combat army firearms are designed for casualty shooting – energy consumption, in a body of the person is approximately 300 Joule.;

- the hunting weapons are created for maximum energy consumption in animal’s body, in order to decrease the number of wounded game.
   At the beginning of the previous century, the arms and ammo producers assumed that the maximum number of the wounded would recover afterwards – war is not forever and next day is going to be peaceful. Who needs a huge number of disabled war veterans in the neighboring country with a mortal hatred against you? This was the time when Mosin Nagant rifle was accepted to the service, the first machine guns were created. It might sound like joke nowadays. This was the time when the captives were taken and treated with respect. If a ship were to be sunk, the crew as well as the captain would be transported to the nearest seaport. The officers fought at duels, and it was a big dishonor to beat (kill) fallen down people. It is at that time that it was specified that in order to prevent a soldier from armed resistance, it is necessary to inflict an injury, after which a soldier stops to participate in battle. It was specified that the damages were to be equal to the bullet’s kinetic energy consumption. It was specified that it is enough for a bullet to loose 250-300 Joule in human’s body. This criterion is relevant even now, when there is a need to certify a weapon as a firearm. An expert makes decisions to certify anything as a firearm by measuring energy.
  Due to the development of the IT-technology, there is a need to update a large part of methods. This is possible thanks to the mathematical modeling of different processes, which enables to get relevant, objective data.

  The philosophy of basic weapons was formulated in 1890’s – 1900’s along with the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. The conference in Hague was summoned by Russia. 27 countries participated in it. In year 1898, Emperor of Russia Nicolas II made a proposition to all countries to reduce arms. The conference initiator was Mikhail Nicolayevich Muravyov, who wrote a diplomatic note to the countries of the world to reduce weapons. The following conventions were signed: “The Pacific Settlement of International Disputes,” “The Laws and Customs of War on Land,” “Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864,” “The Sick and Wounded.” Three declarations were signed as well: “On the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases,” “On the Use of Bullets Which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human Body,” “On the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons.” An attempt was made to recognize machine guns as weapons of mass destruction and their consecutive prohibition. Most of these agreements were broken or not followed at all.
  Mathematical model of the bullet movement in the obstacle

Summary of the Thesis for the International Training-Conference
"Theory and Practice of the Forensic Expertise in Today’s Context"
Moscow, February 14-15, 2007

Expert Institution Deputy Director of the Independent Expertise
of the Automobile Transport Center, Samara, Russian Federation
Anton  Kolmykov

In dedication to the one hundred years of the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, October 18, 1907
G – bullet weight in grams;
V – bullet speed at the moment of impact (m/s);
F – bullet cross-section area (cm2);
S – bullet form index, varying from 0.9 for full jacketed bullets to 1.25 for expanding bullets.
  It is obvious, that there has been no and there is no up-to-date method for kinetic energy consumption calculations. Methods used for the time being are not fully correct.

Conclusion: existing variants of calculation, that are used by the engineers during the firearms’ ammo engineering and ballistics experts are not correct and need to be reconsidered from the very beginning to the end!

  Theoretically, it is possible and necessary, having damages, to get information about the bullet speed, calculate firing range for standard ammo types.

  We need to take into consideration bullet rotation and drift. To put it in a nutshell, I can give an example of what is derivation. When a gun shell flies over your head, the sound is not whistling, as it is shown in movies. The sound is similar to the sound of a propeller airplane. The head of the gun shell traces out a peculiar trajectory, as it is shown on the pictur:
Image 2. Rotation to the right. Bullet (shell) is drifting to the upper right.
  The introduction of the expansion bullets for the firearms of the non-hunting purposes should be considered the consequence of the humanitarian catastrophe and by no means a norm. People must not have the right to bear and store combat and hunting weapons for self-defense. We need to prohibit the use of hunting guns for security purposes. We need to design special weapons for these purposes. Such weapon conception was formulated by Alexander Hinikadze, Director of the CNII TOCHMASH (Podolsk, Moscow oblast), organization designing and testing hunting as well as combat firearms in USSR, and now in Russian Federation. We need to introduce on the level of LEGISLATION the term “bastard” and “bastard type” of weapons, that are industrially produced, but using ammo, not adequate to the barrel length, that renders not fully possible to utilize the energy of the missile or the weapons using ammo with the reduced power consumption in case of getting into the human body. (Refer to http://www.samooborona.ru/Book8.htm).

  It is technically unwise to cut the barrel, reduce its length for the bullet speed reduction purposes, because in this case, there is an excessive pressure on the muzzle, that creates a very deleterious sound, in medical terms. In this respect, it is necessary to remove the first part of the “bastard” weapon definition. In addition to this, it is necessary to add variants on the possibility (or impossibility) of the hidden arms bearing as well as the impossibility of the accidental standard ammo use, regardless of whether it is hunting ammo or combat ammo. As the result the definition of the notion “Bastard” should be formulated in the following way in the Federal law “On Weapons:”
“Bastard” or “Bastard type” is a weapon sample, industrially produced for the ammo with the reduced energy consumption in case on getting into human body. This weapon by its construction prevents accidental standard ammo use, regardless of its hunting or combat purposes. These weapons fall into two categories:
- weapons with the possibility of hidden bearing
- weapons without the possibility of hidden bearing

(First definition by Alexander Hinikadze, CNII TOCHMASH. Final Definition - Independent Expertise of the Automobile Transport Center, A.Kolmykov)

  An example of such weapon is a variation of .380 АСР. Makarov IG-71 (PM) pistol for the security organizations.
   With such definition, the Legislator is able to clarify situation and define in law, which security organizations and which authorities are authorized to carry weapons and which weapons they are allowed to carry.

  We need to clarify the terminology. I would like to offer my variant of the definitions, that I think are good for using in special literature and expertise.
Bullet killing effect – quantity of kinetic energy lost by the bullet in human (animal) body. It is a sum of progressive and rotational motions of the bullet.

Bullet stopping effect – IMPULSE, transferred from the bullet to human body (is calculated through the product of speed by weight).

For example: Advancing enemy should not, after a shot, fall forward (at the shooter), but should fall on his or her back. There is a need to calculate the minimal bullet impulse, enough to perform this function. This is possible to calculate from the average human body weight and bullet getting in the center of his chest. The Makarov PM pistol’s impulse is enough for this.

Penetrating effect – bullet’s capability to penetrate a barrier, bullets tract in the barrier. There is a need to distinguish barriers by their properties, by bullet’s capability to retain its position in the wound tract and by bullet’s position change in the wound tract – with the stability loss and without one.

Armor penetration – bullet slug maximum penetration thickness of the steel barrier, so that the bullet slug retains its residual velocity, enough to loose 250 Joule in human body.

Note: Incendiary-penetrating bullets have different effect on the target and don’t need to have 250 Joule.
  This variant of the definitions’ is easy to understand by a wider audience of specialists. By using the aforementioned definitions, it is possible to describe physical processes, create a mathematical model.

  Homogeneous understanding by the specialists from different countries of the bullet effects on a target allows exact juridical definitions in laws for the admissibility and criteria of certain weapon types (firearms, throwing, pneumatic, traumatic). In their turn, the experts will be able to correctly classify weapons during diagnostic ballistic expertise.
1. Introduce and apply weapon classification according to the bullet (shell) effect.
2. Comparative analysis of all the bullets of the firearm shells allows for equating expansive bullets and the bullets in their “range of stability” in relation to energy consumption in human body. This will enable international weapon community to start campaign against weapons 5.45 mm. (Russia) and 5.56 mm. (NATO).

Text translation can be not exact. Read Russian text.

Group Photograph of the conference participants: http://www.cneat.ru/foto/expert.jpg    
Texts on the topic:

On wounding ballistics refer to http://www.gun.ru/oxota0421.htm

Other articles of the author:

The history of small arms in the 20 st Century http://www.cneat.ru/bullet-2.html

The history of Kalashnikov (the real story) http://www.cneat.ru/versia.html

The story of pistols (en) http://www.cneat.ru/bullet-3-en.html

A.Kolmykov. Revising Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal / International Journal of Russian Studies, Wilmington, DE 19803 U.S.A., ISSN: 2158-7051, ISSUE NO. 5 ( 2012/2 ) URL: http://www.cneat.ru/nurnberg.html